Lester Thomas, Chief IT Systems Architect at Vodafone, again suggested that industry body the TM Forum should move to a model of collaboration and development similar to those used by hyper‑scalers such as Amazon and Netflix (Vodafonewatch, #177). In a keynote during the TM Forum Action Week in early-February 2020, Thomas pointed to cloud‑native service providers as a future model for telecoms operators, noting that “we can’t afford the sort of operational overheads we have today. We need to be able to manage these services in shared platforms, leveraging our scale to drive efficiency. The components themselves need to be self‑healing and be able to self‑manage all the operational processes with no human input”. To promote this change within the TM Forum, Thomas and others have been developing the concept of an Open Digital Architecture. He advocates a replacement for the organisation’s Application Framework, a systems map that captures how business capabilities are implemented in deployable, recognisable applications, saying that it should be software‑defined.